The first introduction to psychology normally comes in the kind of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic understanding of psychology. They know that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they physically function and, to a certain extent, how they act or what illnesses they may develop. But hardly any of these students have a clear comprehension of what exactly DNA is, where it’s found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or altered.
In the case of development, the genes passed from one generation to the next only need to survive. Genes are merely instructions for doing things. Humans, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that is survival oriented. The foundation for this programming is the expression of certain genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, siblings, or other kin will determine such behaviour.
In terms of understanding what is going on genetically, we are still in the era of molecular biology. Within this frame, genes are just packets of information carrying directions. This is how humans, plants and animals have been growing for thousands of years. However, in the last 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has occurred known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics offers a new lens through which we can see the relationships between behaviour and genes.
The molecular basis for behaviors and human memory is in fact quite simple – it’s all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a mobile memory storage which determines whether a behavior will be expressed or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behaviour exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. Most of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes within the cellular memory storage of the individual. The copy of the gene that determines the behaviour is called the epigome. It is this specific copy that we call the epigenome.
The significance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was revealed in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was found that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior that existed between individuals who had identical twins but whose traits were very different. This study provided the first evidence of the importance of the epigenome in human behavior and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders such as autism.
Even though the significance of this Epigenome in psychology has been established, many in the psychological field are reluctant to accept its potential as a significant factor in mental illness. One reason for this is it is difficult to define an actual genetic sequence or locus that causes a behavioral disorder. Another issue is that there are simply too many genetic differences between individuals to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, although the research on the Epigenome has been promising, more work needs to be done to find out the role that genetics play in complex diseases like schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it may be used as a foundation for studying other complicated diseases that have complicated genetic elements.
If you are interested in learning more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I strongly advise that you follow the links below. My site discusses the exciting new technologies that are available today to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can also hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is centered on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I also have been involved in studying the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future articles will also talk about diseases of the brain that can be affected by Epigenetics.