The first introduction to psychology normally comes in the form of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic understanding of psychology. They know that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they function and, to a certain extent, how they act or what illnesses they might develop. But hardly any of these students have a clear comprehension of what exactly DNA is, where it’s found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or changed.
In the case of development, the genes passed from one generation to the next just have to survive. Genes are merely instructions for doing things. People, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that is survival oriented. The basis for this programming is the expression of certain genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, grandparents, or other kin will determine such behavior.
In terms of understanding what is going on genetically, we’re still in the era of molecular biology. Within this frame, genes are simply packets of information carrying instructions. This is the way humans, plants and animals have been growing for thousands of years. Nevertheless, in the past 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has happened known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics provides a new lens through which we could view the relationships between behaviour and genes.
The molecular basis for human and behaviors memory is in fact quite simple – it’s all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a mobile memory storage which determines whether a behavior is going to be expressed or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behaviour exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. The majority of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes inside the cellular memory storage of the person. The copy of the gene that determines the behaviour is known as the epigome. It’s this particular copy that we call the epigenome.
The significance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was revealed in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was discovered that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior that existed between individuals who had identical twins but whose traits were quite different. This study provided the first evidence of the importance of the epigenome in human behaviour and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders such as autism.
Although the significance of this Epigenome in psychology has been established, many in the psychological field are reluctant to accept its potential as a significant factor in mental illness. 1 reason for this is it is difficult to define a real genetic sequence or locus that leads to a behavioral disorder. Another problem is that there are simply too many genetic differences between people to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, although the study on the Epigenome has been promising, more work has to be done to find out the role that genetics play in complex diseases such as schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it may be utilised as a foundation for analyzing other complex diseases that have complicated genetic elements.
If you are interested in knowing more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I highly recommend that you follow the links below. My website discusses the exciting new technologies that are available today to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can also hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is focused on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I have also been involved in analyzing the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future articles will also talk about diseases of the brain which can be affected by Epigenetics.