Epigenetics Conference 2017 Brisbane

The first introduction to psychology normally comes in the form of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic understanding of psychology. They understand that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they function and, to a certain degree, how they behave or what illnesses they might develop. But very few of these students have an understandable understanding of what exactly DNA is, where it’s found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or altered.

In the case of evolution, the genes passed from one generation to the next only have to survive. Genes are merely instructions for doing things. Humans, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that is survival oriented. The foundation for this programming is the expression of specific genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, siblings, or other kin will determine such behavior.

Concerning understanding what is going on genetically, we are still in the era of molecular biology. In this frame, genes are simply packets of information carrying instructions. This is the way humans, plants and animals have been growing for thousands of years. Nevertheless, in the past 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has occurred known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics provides a new lens through which we could view the relationships between behavior and genes.

The molecular basis for human and behaviors memory is in fact quite simple – it’s all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a cellular memory storage that determines whether a behavior is going to be expressed or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.

What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behavior exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. Most of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes within the mobile memory storage of the individual. The copy of the gene which determines the behavior is called the epigome. It is this specific copy that we call the epigenome.

The importance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was shown in a landmark study on twins. For years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was found that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior that existed between individuals who had identical twins but whose traits were very different. This study provided the first evidence of the importance of the epigenome in human behavior and its link to abnormal behavioral disorders like autism.

Even though the significance of the Epigenome in psychology has been established, many in the emotional area are reluctant to accept its potential as a substantial factor in mental illness. One reason for this is that it is hard to define an actual genetic sequence or locus that causes a behavioral disorder. Another problem is that there are simply too many genetic differences between individuals to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, even though the study on the Epigenome has been promising, more work needs to be done to determine the role that genetics play in complex diseases like schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it can be utilised as a foundation for studying other complex diseases that have complicated genetic components.

If you are interested in knowing more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I strongly advise that you follow the links below. My site discusses the exciting new technologies that are available now to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can even hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is centered on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I have also been involved in studying the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future articles will also talk about diseases of the brain which can be impacted by Epigenetics.